System Updates & Development News
Hi! I'm Martin Paul Gardiner
Electronics and software development engineer and founder of GSA Golf
Regularly check out my tech news page for all our latest developments and free updates
if you have any questions
please feel free to contact me personally anytime at
Did you get a response to your e-mail?
We get really busy at times and e-mail responses can be late or even forgotten at times.
Please remind us again if you didn't get a response to your e-mail.
Please note that GSA Golf is currently flooded with orders, production, development, sales inquiries and support appointments
and have thus had to reduce the number of hours per week we can devote to telephone sales and support in order to keep up with production and orders.
We've had to reduce our telephone sales and support line now to between 10 am and 3pm, Tuesday to Thursday.
Times from 8am to 10am and from 3pm to 6pm are now devoted exclusively to production and development
as are all day Mondays, Fridays and Weekends.
Sorry for any inconvenience these new reduced telephone sales and support times may cause.
As before, we have 10am to 3pm, Monday to Friday E-mail sales and support.
GSA Golf Control Panel (CP) downloads
GSA Control Panel (CP) update V.22.214.171.124 - Windows 8 / 10 version
February 22 2018
Download VC redistributables hereHere
Don't forget to run the download after it's downloaded!
A number of customers don't realize that a CP update is a dual process
i.e first download and then run the download
Note that anti-virus programs will probably try to block the GSA Golf CP update download but - be assured - there's no malicious software in the download update
so just ignore any warnings from your anti-virus programs and choose the "More options" and "Run anyway" option.
GSA Control Panel (CP) full version download
Note that the full version installation will overwrite any user settings if you have had any previous GSA Golf CP installations
Download standard configuration files hereHere
GSA Golf Game software download
Warning! if you already have the full version GSA Golf /RedChain software installed, downloading this free single course version will prevent the full version from running correctly
Note: If you encounter a windows error message stating that it could not find d3dx9_30.dll when starting GSA Golf,
download and copy the d3dx9_30.dll to your windows\SysWOW64 folder.
Download here d3dx9_30.dll
Download d3dx9_30.dll 64 bit version here d3dx9_30.dll
Full version GSA Golf/ RedChain software Download here GSA Golf Setup Note: USB dongle key required for this full version
Camera Viewer 2.11 33MB FlyCapture Viewer 2.11
Cam drivers PGRUsb
Experimenting and testing shots with manually entered launch parameters
You can test shots by manually setting the launch parameters in the Control Panel.
Right or Left mouse click in the Edit fields to change the parameters.
To see the trajectory of the ball in flight just click the "Launch Shot" button while having the GSA Golf software running in the background.
In case of issues you can manually install the CP update .exe file by following these instructions
Note: The above update download is just an update for existing customers and not the full version Control Panel
February 22 2018
CX4/CX6 flash sync
Possible error in camera assignments causing flash to go out of sync with camera frames in the CTS now fixed.
Occasional incorrect spin calculations when not using the Bcam ball spin camera or when the Bcam didn't detect the spin.
Now fixed in this version of the CP
TGC connection status
We've received a few reports that the CP is losing connection to TGC during a game.
This CP version shows more TGC connection status messages that will help us trace the cause of the issue.
February 10 2018
New ideas and options about raised flooring
New trigger array installation instructions
February 8 2018
Adjust carry and spin directly in the Vcam window
There's a new slider bar in the Vcam window that allows users to adjust the LA based carry and spin factors directly in the Vcam window and thus see the results of carry adjustment immediately.
February 6 2018
New speed & spin adjustments based on launch angles as well as club types
In addition to the carry & spin factors based on the club being used, there is now a carry (ball speed) factor and spin rate factor based on ball launch angles.
This should be more accurate than the club based method as it cannot be what the launch angle is based on the club selection.
Note that these carry and spin factors are either club or LA based and not both together. If "Carry factors" are switched OFF then neither will be used.
The third column in the window is used to set spin rate factors for specific clubs or launch angles. Again, if "Carry factors" are switched OFF then these spin factors will not be used.
Also note that the standard LA speed increase or decrease is still active in the Vcam window when selecting carry factors ON.
Click the above image and scroll down to Q 16 to read more about standard LA speed adjustments.
February 3 2018
New screen box frame assembly instructions on the screens page
February 2 2018
Business news - record breaking season for GSA Golf
Well, I must say I'm totally overwhelmed by all the sales orders we're getting this season - $60,000 worth of sales orders this past week alone!
Full scale simulator $17,000 F6's are flying out the door these days.
The good news for consumers is that we will be expanding our support services, product quality assurance and product development to give an even better experience going forward.
Thanks so much to all for all your support and patience over the years.
GSA Golf founder and president
February 1 2018
Club fitter mode fix
Club fitter mode was closing out after a swing. Now fixed.
Mouse play game mode
Mouse play game mode only functions when no cameras or sensor mats are connected to the PC. A warning message is now shown if the user attempts to start game mode with cameras connected.
This CP update is for the new LX-P2 launch monitor.
The new LX-P2 is now in production. Price $3,999.
System features the LX Pro dual camera launch monitor ball tracking with the PX2 93 sensor club tracking 3 X fairway grass mat.
January 26 2018
Hcam trigger delay when using a trigger array instead of a SX line scan camera to trigger the V and H cam cameras
When using a TX trigger array instead of a line scan camera to trigger the V and H cam cameras, there has to be a trigger delay on the Hcam to prevent that the trigger array itself does not appear in the valid FOV of Hcam images.
This version of the CP allows users to increase the trigger delay in hundreds of Milli-seconds instead of having to manually increase the delay in micro- seconds - which can take a while.
The above image shows that the H cam trigger delay is set to just over 1200 milli-seconds (i.e 1.2 seconds)
The sensor arrya unit is 5ft in length and features 48 sensors that detect any ball passing over them.
Its advantage over the SX line scan camera trigger is that it doesn't require a non reflective floor surface that usually requires black carpet to be placed under the SX camera, doesn't require any setup and works well in most lighting conditions.
January 22 2018
Vcam IR Filter causing Lens ghosting
On a number of occasions now, users have sent in Vcam images showing a light spot on their back drop that actually isn't there on the back drop.
The phenomena is known as "Lens Ghosting" and is caused by light from the ceiling mount IR lamp hitting the IR filter at an angle greater than the lens angle.
i.e. the IR light is outside the FOV of the camera so you don't see the light itself but its reflection is still there.
Lens ghosting like this can cause havoc with the CP's image processing as it may well be picked up as part of the ball trace.
There are two ways to eliminate this issue:
1. Place a lens hood of some kind on top of the Vcam camera case that extends some 4 to 5 inches out.
2. Remove the lens IR filter from the camera case lid. ( You can usually just push the IR filter out by pressing firmly on the filter rim from the outside breaking the black hot glue seal on the inside of the lid).
In fact, the latter is now being considered as standard on all V and H camera shipments. i.e. all Vcams ( and possibly Hcams as well) will be supplied without an IR filter on them.
Without the IR filter the captured images will appear quite a bit brighter so the camera gain will have to be reduced to suit.
January 21 2018
CP "Using color camera" option
This option is used when users want to use a color camera as a monochrome camera i.e. a CTS color camera as a V, H, B or C cam
This option has been removed from the CTS window as when set ON and the user is already using a color camera, then a memory access violation error will occur
January 19 2018
Customer request : CP System Administrator Mode
We've had a number of requests add a lock mechanism to the CP so that unqualified persons do not play around with any of the CP's settings and setup.
This feature is of particular interest to commercial indoor golf facilities and also home users that may have kids accessing the CP.
The System Admin Mode is not particularly secure at the moment (i.e. anyone can switch it on or off without having to use a password) but better than nothing.
Secure passwords will be added later.
You can switch the System Admin mode on or off in the CP's Setup window.
When on, any changes made to the CP's setup will not be saved so that re-starting the CP will bring the original setup back again.
Some actions are blocked immediately but no all at the moment and those that aren't will not be saved.
A small bug in the CTS functions of the CP prevented triggered CTS images from being captured. This is now fixed in this CP version.
January 15 2018
Dual lane hitting surfaces for Left / Right handed players not playing down the center line.
Customers Jim and Chris - who called within and hour of each other last week - request that the software be able to allow playing the ball off the center line of the enclosure
when the enclosure width is too small and to allow both left and right handed players to play the ball from the center line of the enclosure.
If your enclosure width is too small for you to always play the ball down the center line of the enclosure
then you can select the new "Dual Lane" mode of play if the simulator is to be used by both left and right handed players.
Click "Left handed player" ON in the Hcam window to set the Left handed player's ball launch position.
Switch "Left handed player" OFF in the Hcam window to set the Right handed player's ball launch position.
When playing, the left and right handed player will be automatically set by the game software as the player comes up.
Note that dual lane hitting mats require that two line scan cameras be used and if club tracking is required for both left and right handed players
then dual club tracking systems will be required.
Perfect Parallel software now free of any GSA activation charges
Click the above image for futher information
January 8 2018
Fixing and securing the hitting mat to the floor. Level playing surface options
Customer "Tom" wanted to know how to fix the hitting mat to the floor and how to bring the stance area up to the height of the hitting panel grass surfaces.
I've updated the "Flooring" page today with some tips and options on how to to this.
January 7 2018
Fix: PX5 - Ball track cameras not waiting long enough for club data to come in with fast shots
PX5 users may have noticed that with slow shots the club track data from the sensor mat is being used while with fast shots club data is being calculated from ball data and the real club data from the sensor mat is being ignored.
This is now fixed in this version of the CP. i.e. the system will wait a second or so for the incoming data from the mat - which is slower to come in than data from the cameras.
Fix: PX2 / PX5 club tracking sensor mat - measured club face angle being reduced with increasing club speed
I'm not quite sure why this club face reduction code was put in the system some 10 or so years ago (probably to make the mat more forgiving) but it's removed now.
Customer "Vincent" pointed this out and tests now show the issue is fixed.
January 2 2018
Customer "Brian" wishes to have the "Factory Calibration" option stay off when switched off and restarting the CP.
Customer "Steve" wishes to have the "Smooth Calibration " option stay off when switched off after restarting the CP.
Customer "Mathew" is complaining that he can't see any images in the V and H cameras after they are triggered or in video stream mode when setting the camera shutter speed to just 2 micro seconds when the normal setting is supposed to be 10,000 micro seconds.
- at a shutter speed of just 2 micro seconds you would only see black in the images unless a super powerful Xenon flash is used - Minimum shutter speed for V and H cams is now 6000 micro seconds.
These customer requests are now featured in this CP update.
Let us know if you too have any small requests and we'll put them in asap.
December 27 2017
User defined Side spin / Spin axis factors increased by 200%
A customer was complaining that ball flight curve (Hooks, Slices, Fades and Draws) was too forgiving so we've increased the user defined spin axis and side spin factors by over 200%.
December 20 2017
Long USB or USB over CAT cable connections require that the camera be supplied with external power !
This was quite a surprise to us.
Even though powered USB hubs are used to make up a long USB cable length, the device (in this case a camera) connected to the end of USB cable and hub chain is not powered from the hub!
Tests using 3 powered hubs to make a 24ft long USB cable (as in the above image) showed that no power - or at least not sufficient power - is getting to the camera.
Not even enough to illuminate the built in camera LED. So it would seem that the power in such a cable setup is still being drawn from the PC and not from the powered hub.
Using 1 or 2 hubs seems to work but - depending on the PC - the camera may be detected by the PC and even capture images in video stream mode but when a trigger signal is sent to the camera - nothing happens.
This issue also applies to USB over CAT connections even though the adapters are powered.
Once the camera is supplied with external 5v power, then all works just fine. i.e. multiple cameras on long cable connections respond to triggers and capture images.
We're now fitting an optional external power cable to all cameras to ensure that cameras always get full power should the PC's USB power source drop down or out.
New smooth calibration user feedback
There's been good positive feedback from users trying out the new smooth calibration.
At the moment this feature is optional but will be made permanent later.
New calibration table in today's CP update
We noticed that here were a couple erroneous entries in the calibration table recently.
Today's CP update has an updated calibration table.
After installing the update, the table is copied into the Data folder of the CP (i.e. C:\Program Files (x86)\GSAControlPanel\data).
The file is called "CalibLRex.csv" and should be manually copied to the "C:\Users\Public\" folder in order that it is used.
December 19 2017
New smooth calibration
This is the first beta version of the new "Smooth Calibration" that should fix the issues described below on December 17 2017.
The new "Smooth Calibration" can be switched on or off via the new button in the Vcam window. Default is ON.
December 17 2017
Issue with Vcam calibration causing up to 40 yard jumps in carry distance.
It's been noticed that because the calibration tables were made in 10 degree launch angle steps (i.e. 0 to 10, 10 to 20, 20 to 30, 30 to 40, 40 to 50, 50 to 60 degrees) ,
that two shots of near equal speed, path and LA can result in an up to 40 yard carry distance if shot 1 had a 9.99 degree LA and shot 2 had a 10.1 degree launch angle.
This slight LA difference then caused shot 1 to use a calibration set in the 0 to 10 degree range while shot 2 used a calibration set in the 10 to 20 degree range.
Obviously the calibration resolution of 10 degree LA steps and 2 degree path angle steps (+/- 20 path degrees) is not high enough.
The table at present is 6 X 20 = 120 entries for 3 Vcam distances (5ft, 6ft and 7ft) from the center line. ) The resulting table size is then 120 X 3 = 360 entries.
What's needed is a table done in at least 2 degree LA steps. This table would then be 30 X 20 = 600 for 3 Vcam distances. The resulting table size would then be 600 X 3 = 1800 entries.
And if that wasn't enough, there should be additional table sets for at least 4 launch position distances from the cameras i.e. 4ft, 5ft, 6ft and 7 ft, The resulting table size would then be 1800 X 4 = 7200 entries.
I'm estimating the time to make this 7200 entry table to be around 120 hours ( allowing 1 minute per entry) and if we can find 10 hours per week for this work, then we're looking at around 12 weeks or 3 months.
A quick fix for the moment would be to smooth out the table sets in order to prevent the jumps when moving from one table set to another.
The smooth out process shouldn't take too long and will probably be ready in a week or so.
Calibration table smooth out (ratio/ weighting) math process
Example: Shot has 17 degree LA and 3.7 degree path right.
The table contains a trace length adjustment value for 2 degrees path right (0.594) and for 4 degrees path right (0.572) in the 10 to 20 degree LA range.
Without weighting the 2 degrees path right and 10 degree LA value of 0.594 would be used as 3.7 path right is less than 4 but greater than 2 and 17 degrees is less than 20 and greater than 10.
3.7 degrees is in between 2 and 4 degrees so we can calculate what percentage 3.7 is of 4 (3.7 / 4 = 0.925 x 100 = 92.5%) and take 92.5% of the 4 degrees path right value (0.572 x 0.925 = 0.529)
and the percentage remainder (1 - 0.925 = 0.075) is used to calculate the 2 degree value (0.594 x 0.075 = 0.044).
We then sum the two values (0.044 + 0.529) to arrive at a weighted value of 0.65 instead of the normal value of 0.573 (This is the 10 degree value).
Likewise 17 degrees LA is in between 10 degrees and 20 degrees and ordinarily the calibration would just take the value entered for the 10 to 20 LA range at 2 degrees path right (i.e. 0.594).
The 2 degree path right value at 20 degrees LA is 0.69 and the 4 degree right path value is 0.658.
So doing the same path math as above we get 0.05175 + 0.60865 = 0.66 (This is the 20 degree LA value)
17 degrees LA is 85% of 20 degrees so we take 85% of the 20 degree value (0.66 * 0.85) to get 0.561 and 15% of the 10 degree value (0.573 * 0.15) to get 0.0859.
We then sum the two values to arrive at a final trace length adjustment value of ( 0.561 + 0.0859) = 0.646 instead of the normal 0.594 value.
In this example there is only 5.2 % difference in ball speed measurement (10 yards carry off for a 200 yard shot) but others are more pronounced.
External camera power
We're now fitting an optional external power cable to all cameras to ensure that cameras always get full power should the PC's USB power source drop down or out.
We noticed that when using "USB over Cat" that power is still being drawn from the PC's USB port even though the USB over Cat adapters are powered.
We've also noticed that when two cameras are triggered at the same time ( as with the V and H cams) , that the power drops on some customers PC's resulting in a loss of image even though the camera is still running.
The cameras draw more power when capturing and transferring images than they do when in their normal idle state and this sudden extra power draw can cause the PC's USB power monitors to momentarily reduce the power going out to the cameras.
Existing customers cameras can be retro-fitted with the power cable by us should it be required.
Click the above image to see DIY instructions on how to do fit the power cable yourself. Instructions are at the end of the page.
Separate calibration percentages for left and right ball paths
December 11 2017
PX3 / PX4 systems
There's now an option in the CP's "Sensor Settings" window that allows shots to be launched without ball track detection. i.e. in case the ball track wasn't detected but the club track was.
Fix: Possible initialization error fixed.
TGC status and error codes are now being displayed in the CP's main window.
Fix: CTS flash enable /disable not functioning correctly.
Fix: Carry not shown in CP when using PX2 and PX3 systems.
New free frame timing hardware upgrade for CTS Pro systems.
The CTS Pro captures 2 frames that are usually spaced 1 ms apart.
This upgrade allows the user to space the frames up to 5.7 ms apart for greater club path accuracy.
December 1 2017
Its been noticed that some customers forget to press the "Save Assigns" button before switching on "Fixed Assigns" in the Vcam window.
In fact, even I forgot this once. So now the camera function assignments are automatically saved when fixed assigns is switched.
What are Fixed Assigns?
Fixed camera assignments
Up until this version of the CP, camera assignments where automatically stored every time the CP was closed out in the sequence that the cameras were detected on the USB bus.
The problem with this is that if not all cameras connected to the PC were detected on the PC at CP start up or they are appear in different sequence on the USB bus, then a new - incorrect - assignment set will be saved
requiring the user to re-assign cameras when all cameras are detected on a later PC boot.
The new assignment method - which has taken over 20 hours to code - assigns cameras via their serial numbers to the functions ( i.e. Vcam, Hcam, CTS cams 1 and 2 and Ball spin cams 1 and 2)
e.g. if a camera with serial number 4820826 is assigned to be the Hcam, then this camera will always be the Hcam and will appear as the second camera in the CP's camera window.
Once stored, (via a manual button click) these assignments will never change unless the user wishes to change them.
The issue more concerns customers that have many cameras (i.e. a CX 6 camera system) but can also occur with just a 2 camera setup.
A new "Save Assignments" button in the CP's Vcam window is used to store the current cameras to their assigned functions. Click this button after all the camera assignments have been made.
November 21 2017
Spin axis and side spin now displayed and can be adjusted in the Hcam window
November 16 2017
New lower price for the camera sensor trigger array
As number of customers are still experiencing setup problems with the SX line scan camera - due to lighting and reflective turf carpeting -
we're now offering our trusted sensor trigger array for the same price as our line scan camera as an alternative.
Camera sensor trigger array
The unit is 5ft in length and features 48 sensors that detect any ball passing over them.
Its advantage over the SX line scan camera trigger is that it doesn't require a non reflective floor surface that usually requires black carpet to be placed under the SX camera, doesn't require any setup and works well in most lighting conditions..
New Price just $ 650.00
Product features sturdy acrylic glass casing that takes the full weight of anyone standing on the unit.
November 15 2017
Ball spin slave camera
Fix: if - for some reason - the ball spin slave camera couldn't measure the ball's spin rate (e.g. couldn't detect spin markings or logo on the ball) then it would calculate spin rates based on launch angle and speed of the ball.
As a slave ball spin camera doesn't see the LA and ball speed, then this ball spin calculation would be incorrect.
As of this version of the CP, the slave ball spin camera sends an error message to the master PC if it couldn't measure the ball spin so that the master PC can calculate the spin rate correctly from LA and ball speed.
LX launch monitor updates
The LX CP update are:
1. There are now user definable scan zone areas for all frames in case you need to block any light areas in the FOV of the cameras
2. The flash can now be turned off or on. The "Flash ON" must be turned on for regular use. OFF for testing.
3. Scaling factors are now user adjustable. Once the camera has detected a ball during the setup, adjust so that the size of the ball in mm is 42 mm
November 6 2017
Max camera de-activation time after a shot
This user defined variable is now in the "Setup" window of the CP
November 4 2017
Lots more improvements to multi-PC setups in this version of the CP
October 25 2017
If slave PC's were set to E6, then data wouldn't be sent to the Master PC
CTS Pro club path camera rotation correction
No only do both cameras in the CTS Pro need to be aligned, but the cameras must also have the exact same mounting rotation.
If you find they are off a degree or so and you can't physically rotate the cameras in their mount to correct this, then you can now set a software path rotation factor that will automatically correct the mount rotation error.
October 14 2017
Ball spin camera Lens focus when using IR light
Here's something you probably didn't know about and was new to me too:
Due to the different wave lengths of IR and visible light, lens focus is also different.
i.e. when a camera lens is focused on an object using visible light and you then take a picture using IR light, the object will appear out of focus.
The above images show just how out of focus the golf ball is when using IR light compared to the focus of the ball using visible light.
To correct this - as in the third image - the focus dial on the lens has to be turned very slightly anti-clockwise to the left after it has been focused using visible light.
Check the focus by grabbing new images using either the "soft trigger" with the IR flash ON or by waving an object over the trigger mat sensor.
Improved ball spin detection when using the ball logo as markings.
We've improved the ball logo detection in this version of the CP to work with out of focus ball images.
September 29 2017
CTS: Improved club face edge detection
August 19 2017
For PX5 users
Fix: Putting not functioning when the new "Allow putting without swing being detected" was ON
More popup help
More popup help added. F2 key toggles Popup Help on/off. Popup help automatically times out after 4 seconds. Move the mouse cursor to re-activate the help box.
Putting speed calibration
Putting speed calibration instructions are now on the Putting and Chipping page
Hcam ball speed
Usually ball speed is measured by the length of the ball trace in the floor mounted Vcam camera that views the ball from the side.
However, it is also possible to measure ball speed via the ceiling mounted Hcam that views the ball from above.
The advantage being that very high lofted wedge shots will be in the FOV of the camera whereas these shots may
may be too high to be in the FOV of the Vcam camera if the Vcam is mounted closer to the center line of the enclosure.
Note that this is a new feature that requires a complete new calibration table set and won't be ready until Fall 2017.
July 25 2017
New "Software Swing Detector" prevents inadvertent ball launches in game when retrieving balls
If you have a CTS club track camera with trigger mat or a PX2 club track sensor mat (as with the PX5) then you can optionally setup the system so that it will only launch a ball if a swing (or any movement) over the mat is detected.
You should see a new "Swing detected" message at the bottom right hand side of the CP's main window after a swing. This message appears for about 2 seconds.
Shots will only be detected by the V and H cams during this 2 second window so you can walk freely around the enclosure without any inadvertent ball launches.
Note that this option requires that all shots are made from the mat - including putting unless the "Allow putting without swing being detected on mat" is set on
Switch the "No ball launch without swing being detected on mat" in the CP's Setup window.
July 17 2017
We've received a couple of reports that the E6 game software sometimes does not launch the shot after the ball is hit.
This version of the CP checks for this condition and after a time-out of 3 seconds resets the game to accept the next shot.
Note that this issue seems to arise more when putting in E6 after the user picks up balls for the next putt.
Tests today showed we could reproduce the problem but after today's mod the problem was solved.
June 14 2017
CTS Pro camera frame 2 now has it's own valid FOV borders
Fixed camera assignments
Small modification to last week's CP update that allows users to change their system configurations on the fly (i.e. from CX2 to CX3 , CX3 to CX4, CX4 to CX6 etc or back again ) without having to save the assignments.
You can switch fixed camera assignments off so that cameras can be moved to their assignment positions before saving.
May 21 2017
Spin factors for back spin , side spin and spin axis can now be adjusted directly in the "Show Club Angles" window
February 23 2017
Manual club selection in CP Vcam window
You can now manually select clubs and adjust club specific spin rate factors in the Vcam window. The adjusted spin is immediately shown.
The Global spin rate adjust factor is now split in two : One for woods and the other for irons. Hold the shift key down to switch.
The adjusted spin is now also immediately shown.
Manual club selection in CP Main Window
You can now manually select club types in the CP main window.
The CP will automatically switch to "Manual Club Select Mode" when selecting a club and won't get updated from any game software club selection when in this mode.
Press any key to switch this mode off.
Smash factors can now be manually adjusted for PX1, PX2 or PX5 users that select the "Ball speed calculated from club speed" option.
The selected smash factor can either be a constant factor for all clubs or can be club type adjusted
Fix: Left/Right LA adjustment values not being stored
Typical screen shots are as in the below images
The side mounted Vcam detects vertical launch angle and speed of the ball
The ceiling mounted Hcam camera detects ball path for normal shots
and ball path plus speed when putting
Based in Naples, Florida,
all GSA Golf products are meticulously assembled and tested by hand to meet the highest industry standards